Sustainability by Design: A Framework for Emerging Materials
Novel materials have immense potential to significantly improve the functional performance of current and future technologies. Sustainability by design is a framework that aims to ensure that emerging materials are able to met (or even exceed!) desired performance metrics while also being safe to humans and the environment. This approach precludes the potential realization of adverse unintended consequences. The framework is established on the premise that material structure and physicochemical properties serve as a design handle to manipulate and tailor the desirable and undesirable outcomes. Structure-property-function (SPF) and structure-property-hazard (SPH) relationships are determined by establishing robust relationships between specific materials structure-property parameters and the desired function and inherent hazard.
Relevant Publications Gilbertson, L. M. and Ng, C. A. "Evaluating the use of Alternatives Assessment to compare bulk organic chemical and nanomaterial alternatives to brominated flame retardants." ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2016, 4(11), 6019-6030. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01318
Gilbertson, L. M.; Zimmerman. J. B.; Plata, D. L.; Hutchison, J. E.; Anastas, P. T. “Designing Nanomaterials to Maximize Performance and Minimize Implications Guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.” Chemical Society Review, 2015, 44, 5758-5777. DOI: 10.1039/c4cs00445k
Azoz, S.; Gilbertson, L. M.; Hashmi, S. M.; Han, P.; Stervinsky, G. E.; Kanaan, S. A.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Pfefferle, L. D. “Enhanced Dispersion and Electronic Performance of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Films without Surfactant: A Comprehensive Study of Various Treatment Processes.” Carbon, 2015, 93, 1008-1020.DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.05.087
Gilbertson, L. M.; Goodwin, D. G.; Taylor, A. D.; Pfefferle, L. D.; Zimmerman, J. B. “Towards Tailored Functional Design of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs): Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Activity Enhancement via Oxidation and Selective Reduction.” Environmental Science and Technology, 48 (10), 2014, pp 5938-5945. DOI: 10.1021/es500468y
Systematic Modification and Comprehensive Characterization to Inform Development of Parametric Relationships
The development of robust SPF and SPH parametric relationships requires 1) systematic modification of the material structure, physical and chemical properties followed by 2) comprehensive characterization of those properties, including the desired function and hazard response profiles, and 3) identification of statistically significant correlations between the data collected. This research thrust involves development of controlled treatment methodologies, utilization of numerous techniques to fully characterize all aspects of the material, and application of multivariate statistical analysis to establish robust relationships to inform future sustainable design of nanomaterials.
Wang, Y. and Gilbertson, L. M. "Informing rational design of graphene oxide through surface chemistry manipulations: properties governing electrochemical and biological activities." Green Chemistry, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00159B Gilbertson, L. M.; Albalghiti, E. M.; Fishman, Z. S.; Perreault, F.; Corredor, C.; Posner, J. D.; Elimelech, M.; Pfefferle, L. D.; Zimmerman, J. B. "Shape-Dependent Surface Reactivity and Antimicrobial Activity of Nano-Cupric Oxide". Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 50(7), 3975-3984. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05734
Gilbertson, L. M.; Melnikov, F.; Wehmas, L.; Anastas, P. T.; Tanguay R.; Zimmerman, J. B. “Toward Safer Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Design: Establishing a Statistical Model that Relates Surface Charge and Embryonic Zebrafish Mortality.” Nanotoxicology, 2016, 10(1), 10-19. DOI:10.3109/17435390.2014.996193
Pasquini, L. M.; Sekol, R. C.; Taylor, A. D.; Pfefferle, L. D.; Zimmerman, J. B. “Realizing Comparable Oxidative and Cytotoxic Potential of Single- and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes through Annealing”. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (15), 2013, 8775-8783. DOI: 10.1021/es401786s
Pasquini, L. M.; Hashmi, S. M.; Sommer, T. J.; Elimelech, M.; Zimmerman, J. B. “Impact of Surface Functionalization on Bacterial Cytotoxicity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes”. Environmental Science and Technology, 46 (11), 2012, 6297-6305. DOI: 10.1021/es300514s
A Systems Approach to Nanomaterial and Nano-Enabled Product Design
The unique properties achieved by engineering materials at the nano-scale have inspired innovative applications with the potential to positively influence society and the environment. Biological and chemical sensors, therapeutic and drug delivery, and advanced water treatment technologies are just a few examples. Yet, the benefits realized through nano-enabling products are not without impacts that manifest across the life cycle. Example upstream impacts include metal mining and refining processes and synthesis of nanomaterials while downstream examples include human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials upon release from the product. The impact-benefit ratio (IBR) take a systems approach to quantifying the potential realization of net life cycle benefits.
Gallagher, M. J.; Allen, C; Buchman, J. T.; Qiu, T. A.; Clement, P. L.; Krause, M. O. P.; Gilbertson, L. M. “Research highlights: Applications of life-cycle assessment as a tool for characterizing environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials.” Environmental Science: Nano, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/C7EN90005H Gilbertson, L. M.; Wender, B. A.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Eckelman, M. J. “Coordinating Modeling and Experimental Research of Engineered Nanomaterials to Improve Life Cycle Assessment Studies.” Environmental Science: Nano, 2015, 2, 669-682.
Hicks, A.; Gilbertson, L. M.; Jamila S. Yamani; Zimmerman, J. B.; Theis, T. “Life Cycle Payback Estimates of Nano-Silver Enabled Textiles Under Different Silver Loading, Release, and Laundering Scenarios Informed by Literature Review.” Environmental Science and Technology, 49 (13), 2015, 7529-7542.
Gilbertson, L. M.; Busnaina, A. A.; Isaacs, J.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Eckelman, M. J. “Life Cycle Impacts and Benefits of a Carbon Nanotube-Enabled Chemical Gas Sensor.” Environmental Science and Technology, 48 (19), 2014, 11360-11368.